By now you’ve most likely used PDFs in your business or personal life and you’ve come to understand the benefits that this versatile format can offer. But did you know that you can tailor your PDF format even more to better suit your business needs? Here’s a look at some very important PDF standards that could dramatically change the way you print, archive, and exchange your documents.
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PDF/A – The PDF Standard for Long-Term Archival
What is PDF/A?
In September 2005 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) approved the new PDF/A standard for archiving electronic documents. According to the standard ISO 19005-1, PDF/A is a derivative of PDF that "provides a mechanism for representing electronic documents in a manner that preserves their visual appearance over time, independent of the tools and systems used for creating, storing or rendering the files."
This means of preservation allows PDFs to be self-sustainable. PDF/A achieves this self-sustainability by embedding the information (content, color, font, images, text, etc.) needed for displaying the document within the document itself. In other words, PDF/A does not require any additional outside information to display properly. However, for this format to achieve self-sustainability, it must exclude certain features allowed in standard PDF files such as movies, sound, and transparency.
The PDF/A classification is divided into two parts, PDF/A-1 and PDF/A-2. The first classification, PDF/A-1, is further subdivided into two more categories, PDF/A-1a, and PDF/A-1b. The primary difference between PDF/A-1a and PDF/A-1b is the way in which each handles the extraction of text:
- PDF/A-1a: This level, also referred to as Level A Conformance, is fully compliant with the ISO 19005-1 Standard. This version includes tagging, so that text can be extracted and viewed by multiple devices including hand-helds.
- PDF/A-1b: Referred to as Level B Conformance, this category is considered to be the minimal compliance level for PDF/A. This level guarantees that the document can be displayed and read on a computer monitor, but the legibility of the text is not guaranteed.
- PDF/A-2: PDF/A-2 is based on the ISO standard 32000-1 and takes advantage of features that came after the Adobe PDF 1.4 specification. This includes
- support for JPEG2000 compression (benefits for scanned color documents)
- embedded PDF/A files via collections/portfolios
- transparency, optional content (layers): useful for mapping or engineering drawings or documents with multiple languages (implement different content on different layers)
- unicode support (PDF/A-2U)
- object level XMP metadata (new requirements for custom metadata)
- comments and annotations (defined list of acceptable and prohibited annotation and comment types for PDF/A-2)
- digital signature rules defined
- PDF/A-3: PDF/A-3 is based on the ISO standard 32000-1 and offers support for embedded files.
What it means for your business...
PDF/A is a new standard that will revolutionize the way businesses and government institutions archive critical documents and records. Currently, many businesses archive their documents by keeping hard copies (paper). Another current archiving method is the use of microfilm and microfiche. PDF/A is designed to replace all of these with a single standardized format that is easy to update, searchable, easy to organize, efficient, transportable, and above all, sustainable. For your business, this means a low cost, low volume alternative to keeping stacks of papers and folders in your archive. Also, because this is an electronic format, you can easily store your archived documents in multiple locations making them much less vulnerable to fires, floods, or any other natural disasters.
PDF/X – A PDF Standard for Prepress Data
What is PDF/X?
PDF/X, like PDF/A, is a subset of PDF. The purpose of PDF/X is to provide designers, illustrators, engineers, and graphic artists with an electronic file format that can be printed correctly by any service provider. PDF/X allows for total consistency even when files are handled at multiple locations by people using different equipment. This format is ideal for most inter-company print-ready transfers where the sender of the print-ready information and the receiver do not have a strong affiliation. In addition to providing a sturdy delivery format for print jobs, PDF/X also delivers other benefits including a file viewer, better compression (smaller file size), support for spot colors, a means of identifying the printing condition for which the file was prepared, and more. However, like PDF/A, the benefits of PDF/X are offset by compromises. Features like transparency, encryption, and JBIG2 compression are prohibited in PDF/X.
The PDF/X standard is subdivided into three categories:
- PDF/X-1a: This standard is ideal for file senders who want to retain the most control over the print job. It supports blind exchanges and conforms to common requirements in many parts of the world.
- PDF/X-3: The most important difference between PDF/X-3 and PDF/X-1a is the fact that a PDF/X-3 file contains color managed data. This means that any tools that can read a PDF/X-3 should also be able to read a PDF/X-1a file.
- PDF/X2: Unlike the first two formats mentioned above, which are designed for blind exchange, the PDF/X2 is geared toward exchanges where there is more dialogue between the sender and the receiver. It is a superset of the PDF/X-3 format, which is a superset of the PDF/X-1a format.
What it means for your business...
The PDF/X standard is designed to be applicable across many sectors and businesses within the print industry. If you’re on the receiving end of print-ready files, make sure you are clear on exactly what types of files you can accept (PDF/X-1a, PDF/X-3, or PDF/X2). Also, it’s safe to upgrade to newer versions of PDF/X tools as they are made available, because they’ll be able to read older files. Most products that support baseline PDF will also support PDF/X files. Make sure you pre-flight any incoming print files to determine that they comply with the proper version of PDF/X. Also, if you are a printer or a publisher, make certain that your entire workflow is PDF/X compliant. If you are sending print-ready data to a publisher or printer, consider carefully your options with regards to the subsets of PDF/X to determine which is best for your business. Ultimately, the goal of PDF/X is to provide a means to send full-bodied digital files with the confidence of knowing that they will get through the prepress process without any errors or rework.
PDF/E and PDF/UA
ISO 24517-1:2008 is an ISO Standard published in 2008. This standard defines a format for the creation of documents used in engineering workflows and is based on the PDF Reference version 1.6 from Adobe Systems. PDF/E is a subset of PDF, designed to be an open and neutral exchange format for engineering and technical documentation.
The “UA” stands for Universal Accessibility. PDF/UA provides a technical standard for software developers implementing PDF writing and processing software. Conformance with PDF/UA provides accessibility for people with disabilities who use technology such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, joysticks and other technologies to navigate and read electronic content. PDF/UA is not a separate file-format but simply a way to use PDF.
For more information about the International Organization for Standardization, visit http://www.iso.org/iso/en/ISOOnline.frontpage